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\ M V. R 1 C A N ^-\Ll■OXTOLOG^


0> vJ^C-^-^O)




llMACA. N. Y.

IT. S. A.


Bulletin No. Plates Pages

80. Nomenclatorial notes on Eocene Mollusca

By Katherine VanWinkle Palmer 1-7

81. Devonian crinoids from the Mackenzie River Basin,

N. W. T., Canada

By Winifred Goldring 1-2 8-34

82. The correlation of certain Devonian faunas of eastern

and western Gaspe

By E. M. Kindle 3-4 35-86

82A. Devonian Bryozoa of Gaspe

By Madeliene A. Fritz 5-6 87-100

83. A Devonian fauna from Colombia

By Kenneth E. Caster; Including Stratigraphic


By Axel A. Olsson 7-20 101-318

84. Notes on Cypraea heilprini Dall and Cypraea chilona

Dall with new species from the Pliocene of Costa


By William Marcus Ingram _ 21 319-326

85. New fossil Cypraeidae from the Miocene of the Dom-

inican Republic and Panama, with a survey of the

Miocene species of the Dominican Republic

By William Marcus Ingram 22 327-340

86. Reprint of Conrad's Jackson Eocene fossils as de-

scribed and illustrated in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Proceedings for 1855, pp. 257-63 and Wailes' Report on the Agriculture and Geology of Mississippi, 1854, pis. XIV-XVII .-.. 23-26 341-359

87. A group of Pennsylvanian crinoids from the vicinity

of Bartlesville, Oklahoma

By Harrell L. Strimple . _ . . _ 27-29 359-386








Ithaca, New York, U. S. A.


Vol. 24

No. 80

Nomenclatorial Notes On Eocene Mollusca

By Katherine VanW. Palmer

July I, 1938

Ithaca, New York, U. S. A.


By Katherine \'an Winkle I'almer

At the time of the puljHcatiori of the munoii-rapli on tlie Clai- bornian fauna^ the reference showing Ccclatitra Conrad, i8()5- was preoccupic(h had not been found. Since that time the author has located the citation wliich Conrad i;rol)ably liad in nhnd when he changed the name of the genus to Actcioncuuir

Tlie confusion in connection with these two names has been discussed in detail ))}■ the writer in the work on the fa.una of the Claiborne and will not be repeated here. Conrad himself used Ccclatiira previousl_\- in iS53'* for a Naiad. Actccoiicina is there- fore a substitute r.ame for Ccrlatura C^inrad, i<SC)5 and the prob- lem of its genotype falls in that categorw The one interpretation which was suggested on p. 156 of the Claiborne work ma_\- be eliminated.

Aldrichia Palmer'' is ])reoccupied 1)\' .ihlricliia CrKpiillett'' in insects aiid X'aughan" in corals. Aldrichia Palmer is herein re- named Tiinothia.

Attention is called to the reference by J. W. Taxlor" on the dates of the publication of the various parts of Moquin-Tandon's "Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques Terrestres et Muviatiles de

iPalmer, K. V. W., Bull. Aiiicr. l^al., vol. 7, No. :V1, p. 154, 1S>:!7. 2Conrad, T. A., Amer. Jour, ("oiu'li.. vol. I, pp. 28, .'iS, 1865. aConrad, T. A., ibid. y. 147.

4Coiirad, T. A., Acad. Nat. Sci., I'hila., Proc. vol. 6, p. 268. 185;i. sPaliner, K. V. W., Bull., Amer. Pal., vol. 7, No. ;;2, p. 262, 1937. sCoquillett, D. W., Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc, vol. XXI, p. 9:5, 1894. -Vaughr.n. T. W.. U. S. Geol. Sur., Men. vol. XXXIX, ]>. 70, 1900; Proc. Biol. See. Wash., vol. XYI, p. 101. 1903. Aldrichia Vaughan renamed. sTaylor, J. W., Proc. Mai. Soc. London, vol. 6, p. 186, 190-1.


4 Bulletin 80 4

France." The six parts were issued April 12, May 4, August i, September 10, 1855 ; January 2, April 9, 1856 respectively. These dates definitely establish the priorit>- of PapilUna Conrad, Janu- ary, 1855^ over PapilUna AIoquin-Tandon, 1855.

F. Stearns MacXeil, United States National Aluseum pointed out to the writer that Herrmannsen" designated a t}pe for Cla- z'ilithes Swainson, 1840 previous to other designations. Herr- mannsen's statement of type was overlooked in the discussion of of the Claibornian Clavilitlies by the author^^ and the work of Grabau'- was followed. The problem of Clavilithes Swainson. 1840" begins vritli Clavella Swainson, 1835^* for which it was a substitvite name. How^ever, it does not seem that with the excep- tion of one genus (p. 7,"Trochilea, type Trochus pilens. Auct.") Swainson's "Elements of Modern Conchology" can be used for generic names without difficulty. He did not mention any specific names or references (exception p. 14, Mitreola, reference given). The generic names are descriptions without species and would therefore require special ruling as under Int. Rules Zool. Nomenclature Opinion No. 46. In case of Clavella, the descrip- tion reads, p. 20, "The genus Fusus, again, has no plaits ; it is so closely allied to the fossil genus Clavella (here now first defined) , that there can be no doubt of its entering within the limits of this group"; p. 21, "Clavella Sw. Fuciform [fusiform] ; channel long; no plaits, but the tip of the spire enlarged. Fossil only."

It appears that even though Clavilithes Swainson, 1840 was a substitute name for Clavella Swainson, 1835, since Clavella has no species, Clavilithes must take its type from the species mentioned under its own description and the type so established becomes the type of both genera (Int. Rules Zool. Nomen., Art. 30, f.).

sConrad, T. A., Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. Proc. vol. 7, p. 262, 1855 ; Palmer, K. V. W., Bull. Amer. Pal. vol. 7, No. 32, p. 363, 1937.

loHerrmannsen, A. N., Indicis Generum Malaeozoorum, vol. I, p. 246, 1S46.

iiPalmer, K. V. W., ibid, p. 356.

i2Grabau, A. W., Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. XLIV, p. 104, 1904.

isSwainson, Wm., A Treatise on Malacology etc., p. 304, 1840.

i^-Swainson, Wm., Elements of Modern Coneholog^-, pp. 20, 21, 1835.


Herrmannsen designated Fnsus noce (Chem.). This is a valid designation as F. nocc was listed in Swainson's original descrip- tion of Clavilithes, 1840. The characters of F. noce disagree with the original description of Clavella because F. nocc (Chem.) Lam. has plications on the columella during part of its life history, such disappearing with maturity. Mr. A. Wrigley, England^^ who was consulted in this matter has expressed the opinion that such a noncomformity eliminates the use of F. noce (Chem.) Lam. as genotype of Clavilithes. This is the reasoning w^hich Grabau^*^ also used. ' The writer does not favor this interpretation because of the vagueness of tlie type of Clavella Swainson, 1835.

Losing F. noce Lam. as the genotype of Clavilithes Swainson causes a change in the current idea of the genus as well as a conflict with the subsequently named genus Rhopalithes Grabau/' type F. noce Lam.

Rhopalithes Grabau becomes synonymous with Clavilithes Swainson, 1840 and the forms of Clavilithes typified by C. par- isiensis (Mayer-Eymar)=rC. longcevus (Desh.) non Solander are without a generic or subgeneric name. It is in this last nonplicate group that the Claibornian species belong. However, there is some doubt that Clavilithes needs to be separated on the character of the columellar plications, particularly when those specimens which do have plications in the young stages of growth lose them in the adult.

The presence or absence of columellar plications cannot always be taken as a factor of generic differentiation in the gastropods. A typical example of a genus including plicate and nonplicate shells is the Claibornian Eocene genus Mazzalina Conrad, i860 = (Bulbifiisus Conrad, 1865).^* Conrad made two genera on characters which are now known to be only specific and in some cases may not even be specific.

isPersonal letter. May 7, 1938. i^Grabau, A. W., ibid, p. 104. ^ 'Grabau, A. W., ibid, p. 135.

isHarris, G. D., Ark. Geol. Sur., Ann. Kept. State Geol., vol. II, p. 165. 1892; Palmer, K. V. W., ibid, p. 349.

Q Bulletin 80 6

The prol^lem of Clarillthes is already too complicated to be burdened with more names without further complete and thorough work. Until then, the author prefers to use ClavUithes Swainson, 1840, {=Rlwpalithcs Grabau, 1904) genotxpe by sub- sequent designation, Herrmannsen, 1846, Fitsits noce (Chem.) Lam. to include the nonplicate forms of C. parisiensis (Mayer- Eymar) . Wrigley's'^ criticism of Grabau's study of the phylogen>' of ClavUithes shows that additional investigation must be made on the group before a satisfactory conclusion is reached.

Since needless time is wasted in searching for Eulimella Forbes, 1846, as given b_\- authors-" it seems worthwhile to reiterate 1:2- dale's^^ affirmation that no sLich reference exists. One will fmd that there is an article by Forbes in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. XIV, p. 412 but the genus Eulimella is no where mentioned in the article. The date of the reference is 1844 instead of 1846. Malaconchologists as H. and A. Adams, Fischer, Bucquoy, Daut- zenberg and DoUfuss, Tryon, Sacco, Cossmann and many other standard authors continued the error in their work. According to Iredale, Jeffreys-' was the first to mention EtiUmella in liter- ature. Jeffreys was followed by Gray-^ in the same' year. Gray gave the name and selected a type. Iredale suggested that the name Eulimella as ascribed to Forbes was a manuscript name. Such a supposition appears reasonable for particularly Jeffreys was assisting Forbes^* in the work on the British Mollusca. Ire- dale prefers to give Gray credit for publishing the genus. Thiele-^ in his Handbuch assigns the genus to Gray. However, it seems to the author that Jeffreys' reference of Eulimella is legitimate but with no designation of t}pe. He states "Eulimella (Forbes")

loWrigley, A. G., Proc. Mai. Soc. London, vol. XVII, pp. 222, 234-237, 1927.

soDall, W. H. and Bartseh, P., Bull. IT. S. Nat. Mus., No. 68, pp. 10, 17, 1909. See Iredale, T., The Nautilus, vol. XXIV, No. 5, p. 53, 1910 for previous lefereiiees.

2ilredale, I., ihid, p. 53.

aaJcffreys, J. G., Ann. Mag-. Nat. Hist., vol. XIX, p. 311, May, 1847.

23Gray, J. E., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. XV, p. 160, Nov. 9 (read), 1847.

SAjeffreys, J. G., Hid, p. 309.


c;-c::sula, I\Ial. and Conch. J. E. MacAndrci, Forbes in Ann. Nat. Hi-t., vcl. XiW p. 412 . . . .

Eiilinnila (jracilis " (Followed l\v a description of this

last species.)

Authors-" l;elicve that the E. crassida Jeffreys equals E. Mac- Andrei Forbes and is the same as E. scUlcc (Scacchi). E. scillar (Scacchi) is the species Vv-hich Gra_\' used as the type of his EuUuiclla and it is the species which is commonly used when the genus is assigned to Tujrbes. Fortunately therefore the same species can be designated as the type of EuUmclla (Forbes) Jeffreys and the established characters of the genus need not be disturbed. To bring this about, in case the authority of the genus is granted Jeffrc}s, the genot\pe of EuUmella (lu^rbes) Jeffreys, 1847 ^^ herein designated as E. crassula (Jeffreys) =£. Mac- Andrei ( Forbes) =/:. sciUcc (Scacchi). Recent. Great Britian and Scandinavia. Fliocene and Pleistocene of Ital}- and Sicil}-.

2'''T!!i?le, J., II:iii(ll)i:e!i diT Sy:itcmati;:'c'.:on Wcichtievkundo, pt. !, p. LD'.O, 1929.

2GForbes, E. and Hanley, S., Hist. Bntinh Moll., vol. Ill, j). ;;;i9. 1S')1 ; Dall, W. H. and Bartfch, P., U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. No. CS, p. 10, l::; ;).

Paleontological Eepearch Institltion May 25, 1938.






Ithaca, New York, U. vS. A.


Vol. 24

No. 8 c

Devonian Crinoids from the Mackenzie River Basin, N. W. T., Canada

By Winifred Goldring

August 15 1938

Ithaca, New York. U. S. A.



Winifred Goldring New York State Museum, Albany, N. Y.

Ivecently a collection of crinoids from the Great Slave Lake region, Mackenzie River basin. Northwest Territories, Canada, was submitted to the writer for study by Doctor E. M. Kindle, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. Of this collection he writes, "The horizon is probably not far from that rej^resented by crinoids described and figured by Springer in two of our reports".

In 1921 Springer described two new species Melocrinus borealis and M. canadensis collected by E. J. Whittaker from the Hay River section, the former below the Alexandra falls and the lat- ter above the falls (ref. cit., p. 17). The Hay River section from which the crinoids were obtained was studied by Kindle who re- ferred (1919, p. 4) the beds to the Upper Devonian, having found a characteristic Portage fauna in the Simpson shale below the strata from which the crinoids came. Melocrinus borealis is represented in the present collection from locality 7005, bed h, Lady Evelyn Falls section of the Kakisa River; a few plates from locality 7300, the gorge section of the Redknife River are doubt- fully referred to M. canadensis. Springer relates M. borealis to M. fersns, a Missouri form described by Rowley (1893, p. 303; 1894, pp. 151, 153) from shales considered of Middle Devonian (Hamilton) age by early geologists and 1)_\- later authorities of younger age {see Keyes 1894, p. 43; 1902, p. 271-273; Greger ^<j09, p. 374; Sehuchert 1903a, p. 143, 1903b, p. 545; Weller, 1909, p. 264; Branson 1923, pp. 44-46). Springer concludes, "it is clear that the fossils of the Missouri and Mackenzie Devonian belong to the same palaeontological province, and are of approx- imatel}' the same age" (ref. cit. p. 15).

Bulletin 81 12

In his later paper (1926) Springer adds three new species of Mclocrinus: M. kindlei and M. mackenzic from the coral reef in limestone above the horizon of the Simpson shale. Root River section ; and .1/. zvhiftakcri from the beds at least 300 feet above the Simpson shale in the Trout River section. No specimens of A[. kindici appear in the collection, and only a single specimen that can be referred to .1/. inackeii::ic was found and this in the crinoid bed at the upper falls of the Redknife River. At least three specimens from the Redknife River section, in the crinoid bed at the upper falls, have been referred to M. zvhiifakeri. Three new species, M. subfilistriatiis, M. sidcosutura and M. humei, are here added from the Redknife River crinoid bed.

Springer also describes (p. 132) one species of H'exacrimis ( H. hujnei) ; but Melocrimis is the only camerate genus represent- ed to anv extent in the three collections and it is so far represented b\' eight species. Except for M. borealis which shows clo'se rela- tionship to species of Iowa, Missouri and Wisconsin, as pointed out b\- Springer (1926, p. 127), the species of Melocrimis are "not. only thoroughly distinct from that, but also from each other. And the interesting thing about them from a geological point of view is that in the characters by which they differ so completely from all other known American species, the three . . species [Af. kindlei, M. mackcnzie and M. zvhittakeri'] exhibit a tendency to an asym- metrical construction of the calyx which is not observed among the abundant species of the Eifel limestone of the Middle Devon- ian, but which developed in certain species belonging to the Fras- nian (or lower) member of the Upper Devonian in Belgium \_M. koiiiiicki, M. Jiieroglyphicus (non Goldf.) Fraipont=Af. dewal- qitci von Koenen, M. henedeni and M. }iiespilijoniiis'\" (see also p. 129; Fraipont, 1883; Von Koenen, 1886). M. borealis has a similar, though less marked tendenc\' to as\'mmetr\' of the calyx, and in the three new species described here it as well-marked as in the others. The single specimen of Hexacriuus in the collec- tion studied by Springer (1926) represents "another very prev- alent ^liddle Devonian genus in the Eifel, but rare in x\merica.

Mackenzie Ckinoids: Goldring

... of a type complete!}- different from that of the TLifel, but which is also represented in the Upper Devonian rocks of Belgium" (p. 127).

In the collection untler consideration inadunate species of crin- oids are represented from Lake Kakisa, one half mile back from the south shore, west end ; the gorge section of the Bouvier River and eight miles above the mouth ; above the upper falls of the Redknife River, in the gorge section and at the third chute. A single specimen representing the Flexibilia was collected from the crinoid bed near the base of the coral zone, Jean Marie River, and a startish was found loose in the Trout River section, at the foot of the long heavy rapid, one half mile below the lower cas- cade. Only portions of the vertical side of two arms of the star- fish are preserved, and not in very good condition, so that this species has not been placed.

The collections studied by Springer were made by E. J. Whit- taker in the Hay River and Trout River sections ; by G. vS. Hume for the Root River section. In his later paper (1926, p. 128) .Springer has incorporated notes by Mr. Whittaker and Mr. Hume, relative to the stratigraphy of the crinoid-bearing beds. The present collection, in so far as labelled, was collected by E. J. Whittaker. The species of crinoids described in all collections so far submitted for stud\- are


Melocrinus borealis Springer M. canadensis Springer M. kindlei Springer M. mackenzie Springer M. whittakeri Springer M. sulcosutura Goldring JM. subtilistriatus Goldring ?il. I'.umei Goldring Hexacrinus humei Springer

6 Bulletin 81 i'*


Synaptcjcrinus ( ?) rotunclatus Cioldring


Undetermined sp.

Decadocrinus spinobrachiatus Goldring Prininocrinus robustus Goldring Linocrinus kindlei (ioldring



Melocrinus canadensis Springer

Melocrinus canadensis Springer, Geol. Surv., Canada, Bui. 33, p. 17, pi. 1, fig. 3, 1921.

Melocrinus canadensis was based by Springer upon a single specimen lacking basal plates and onl_\- parti}' free from the ma- trix. In this collection, from the Trout River section at the third falls (loc. 6978), are a few radial and interradial plates, partly separated, which might be referred to this species and then only with doubt.

The only description given with the figure is that this species is of a larger and more robust t_\-pe \\'ith very low plates, in the flat- ness of which "this form is comparalile with one from the Hamil- ton of western New York figured by Hall, but ne\'er described, under the name M. breviradiatus" (ref. cit., p. 17). The form figured b_\- Hall in 1872 (pi. i, figs. 18, 19) has since been de- scri])ed and refigured by the writer ( 1923, p. 127-130, pi. 13, figs, i 2). There is even more resemblance to Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams from ( ^enesee and Portage beds of the Upper De- vonian of western New York {see ref. cit., p. 132-136, pi. 13, figs. 3-5 ; pi. 14). The figured specimen of M. canadejisis shows a short anal tube, not characteristic of the other species under discussion nor found in any of the specimens in this collection.

15 MACKEiVziE Ckinoids: Goldrin'G

Melocrhilic whittakeri Springer

Mclocrinus irhitlfiL-rri Spriii;L;x r, Ueol. iriurv., Canada, Bui. 42, pp. 1;!1, l;i2, pi. 24, fios. 14-17, 1926.

Mclocrinus Tvliittakcri was based l)y Sprinj^er upon three well- (letined specimens in which the characters are thoroughlv con- stant. The holot_\])e came from the Trout River section, about 15 miles above its confluence with the AJa,ckenzie, "from Ijcds at least 300 feet above the Simpson shale and thought to be s(nne- what higher tlian the M. borealis horizon of the Ha\- River, l'p])er Devonian" ( ref. cit., ]). 132). In discussing the relationship of this species witli M. k'uidlci and .1/. uiackcnrjic from the Root Ri\er section Springer states that it is "readily distinguished from them and all others known ]\\- its marked ovoid contour, and ex- tremely small column facet, whicli indicates a considerabl\- differ- ent type of column from that of the genus as generalh- found. The tendenc} is usually to a broad base. None of the Belgian species is at all similar to this except in asymmetry" (ref. cit.).

In the collection submitted by Dr. Kindle are at least three specimens that might be referred to .1/. t^'hittakcri, but from tlie san;;e crinoid bed were collected three new species all showing a small column facet and two of tliem with elongate ovoid cahx. These new species are. howe\er, easily distinguished from M. whittakeri.

One of the specimens referred to this species is abnormally large, measuring zy mm. to the arm bases with a broken basal cup. The second s])ecimen has a height for the calyx of 28.2 mm. (24 mm. to arm bases) ; the third 25.5 mm. {22.2 mm. to arm bases). All the specimens, therefore, are larger than those de- scribed by S])ringer ; and the writer l)elie\-es that they are more mature forms, as indicated by the character of the plates. .Second- ary thickening of crinoid plates develops in older forms sometimes with quite striking dift'erence in i)late characters. Si)ringer de- scribes the plates of the calyx as "smooth or slightly rugose, flat, with a slight tendency to pitting at the angles, but without convex-

8 Bulletin 81 16

ity or median elevation either in dorsal cup or tegmen" (p. 131). In these three specimens the pitting at the corners is well shown. Thickening of the plates is seen at the margins, and there is a central raised area or flattened tubercle surrounded by a slight depression due to the thickening at the margins. In the second largest specimen an occasional plate shows a more prominent central tubercle.

Horizon and locality. From the crinoid bed at the upper falls, Redknife River, locality 7288.

Melocrinus subtilistriatus n. sp. Plate 1, figs. 1-5

In the collection submitted by Dr. Kindle are a fairly large num- ber of specimens which in the shape of the calyx and the small column facet bear a strong resemblance to M. whittakeri. This appears to be a smaller species. The specimens are of medium size, average calices measuring between 20.2 mm. and 22 mm. high with a width at the arm bases from 15.7 mm. to 18 mm. Two particularly large specimens have heights of 24.6 mm. and 25 mm. All the specimens have asymmetrical, elongate ovoid calices contracting more or less strongly below to a very narrow base, with the characteristic small column facet, and also between the rays into the veiy low tegmen with subcentral anal opening without a tube.

Specimens in this .collection, if seen alone, might give the im- pression of being varieties of the species, or even different species, because of the presence in some of faint stellate ornamentation, in others of raised ridges and more tumid plates. However, the writer has picked out a series showing the relation of one stage to the next. One specimen shows the "smooth or slightly rugose, flat plates", referred to by Springer (1926, p. 131) in his descrip- tion of M. whittakeri, with pitting at the angles. Closer inspection shows remnants of delicate carinse crossing the suture lines, par- ticularly well shown on the radials, first primibrachs and primary interbrachials. A second specimen shows beautifully a delicate ornamentation of groups of two or three fine carinae extending

17 Mackenzie Okinuids: Goldring

from center to center of the hasals, raclials, first primibraclis and primary interbracliials. Usually the center ridge of each group is stronger. The higher plates of the radial and interradial series have strong ridges, usually only one running from center to center with an accomi)anying deeper pitting at the angles. x-\s the indi- viduals grew older changes in the character of the ornamentation took place, well-shown in the selected series of specimens. I'he carin;e thicken into ridges with the development of a low ridge following each radial series. Sometimes there is de- veloped a central blunt tubercle, marking the junction of the cariui'e at the center of the plates, ]iarticularly the i)rimar_\- inter- b'"achials, and with this a rugose character is gixen to the plates. As this thickening process continues the plates become tjuite tumid, witli the presence of cariuce indicated, if at all, only at the sutures and on the higher interbrachials, especially of the anal interradius. Thickening of the plates at the margin tends to de- velop depressed sutures.

Horizon and locality. The cotypes are from locality 7288, the crinoid bed at the upper falls, Redknife River. There are other specimens from the same locality and from localit}' 7291, bed marked c (field No. 267), 34 "lile below the upper falls, Redknife River; probably also from localit}' 7005, bed h, Lady Evelyn F'alls section, Kakisa River.

Remarks. The specific name is given because of the finely striated character of the ornamentation which distinguishes this rpecies from both M. zvhiffakeri and M. sulcosufura.

Melocrinus sulcosutura n. sp. Plate 1, fig. 6

From the same crincjid bed in which M. sitbtilisfriatiis is so abundant was collected a single somewhat crushed specimen of the same type, but with enough differences to warrant placing it in a new species. Nearly all of the dorsal cup and part of the tegmen are preserved. A fragment from the gorge section at the lowest chute, Redknife River (loc. 7300) has also been referred tc this species.

10 Bulletin 81 18

M. sulcosutura has an ovoid cal\x as seen in M. zvhittakeri and M. suhtiUstriatus but is more rounded at the basals, which have a lower, broader saucer-shape, and Hkewise broader at the arms base. This is a more robust form, larger and heavier than the average of the specimens of M. subtilistriatus with a height to the arm bases of 24.5 mm. ; height of calyx 28 mm. The asym- metry of this species is masked by a certain amount of crushing. The plates are somewhat elevated, flat or slightly rounded, beveled at their margins and with the suture lines giving the appearance of being widely grooved. In this respect the species differs from M. whittakeri and M. subtilistriatus and bears a resemblance to M. bainbridgensis described by Hall and Whitfield 1875 (see Goldring 1923, p. 130, pi. 12, figs. 5-9) from the Upper Devonian (Huron shales) of Ohio. The interradial plates above the pri- mary interbrachial are usually quite tumid, sometimes even point- ed and the same is probably true of the tegminal plates, judging from the little that is preserved. Nothing is known of the anal opening. The column facet is small as in M. whittakeri and M. subtilistriatus.

Horizon and locality. The holotype is from the crinoid bed at the upper falls, Redknife River, locality 7288.

Remarks. The grooved sutures suggested the specific name. These and the smooth, elevated bevel-edged plates distinguish this species from M. whittakeri and M. subtilistriatus.

An abnormality in the right postero-lateral interradius should be noted. It is comparable to the abnormality found in the right antero-lateral radius in Mclocrinus huniei, involving the right postero-lateral and right anterior interradii. As in the case of that specimen the condition apparently is connected with the asymmetrical development and occtn"s on the convex side. In this specimen the abnormality takes the fofm of an extra plate in the position of an anal plate between the right posterior and right antero-lateral radials. The radials in these two rays are smaller than average ; the first primibrachs are slightly larger tlian

19 Mackenzie Cuinoids: Gcldking 11

average as also is the priman- interbrachial in the right postero- lateral interradius.

Melocrinus humei n. sp. Plate 1, figs. 7, 8

Melocrinus humei comes from the same bed as M. subtilistria- tus and M. sulcosutura. The description and figures are based upon a single, well-preserved calyx ; but two other specimens from the same bed have been referred to this species.

M. humei is a robust species which has the asymmetrical calyx characteristic of the other species from this region. The dorsal cup has a height to the arm base of 25.5 mm. and a width between 23 mm. and 24 mm. (calyx 28.8 mm. high). As in M. tvliittakeri, M. sitbtilisfriatus and M. sulcosutura the dorsal ,cup narrows rapidly below the radials to a small column facet, not however, as small as in these three species. The basals flare slightly out- ward to their junction with the first columnal. Above the basals the dorsal cup expands rapidly giving an inverted pyramidal shape to the calyx. The tegnien is low, flat near the central portion and with the ambulacral areas raised into low ridges which give a depressed efl^ect to the interambulacral areas. The anus is subcentral and there is no anal tube.

The plates of the dorsal cup are generally flat with a suggestion on the radial series of a low, broad, longitudinal ridge. A slight thickening of the plates gives a beveled appearance to the edge of the plates and an appearance of grooving to the sutures, though this latter character is not conspicuous as in M. sulcosutura. The character of the plates suggests two Upper Devonian forms : M. clarkei from western New York and M. bainbridgensis from Ohio. The interradial series has the succession i, 2, 3, 3, 4 or I, 2, 3, 4, 4. A ,curious abnormality occurs in the right antero- lateral radius apparently in connection with the asymmetrical development of the specimen as it occurs on the convex side. The right postero-lateral and right anterior interradii have each three plates in the third rank so large that this series of the two interradii meet above the first primibrach in the right antero-

12 Bulletin 81 20

lateral radius, separating it from the primaxil above. This char- acter does not occur in the other specimens referred to this species. The plates of the dorsal cup are further characterized by small scattered tubercles more numerous on the basals, radials, first primibrachs, and primar}- interradials. The plates of the tegmen are small, usually flat and sometimes bearing a central tubercle particularly on the ambulacral series.

One of the other specimens referred to this species shows a slighth' tumid condition in some of the plates, with the develop- ment of low nodes on the first secundibrachs. The tubercles have also thickened and sometimes have coalesced. The third specimen shows a different condition which might develop with maturity, but has led the writer to refer this specimen to the species with a query. The slightly grooved appearance of the sutures is shown and the flat character of the plates with the low ridge on each radial series. Only here and there is there a dis- tinct tubercle seen, probably because the plates are so weathered and also because there has been a thickening of the plates and coalescence of tubercles. The plates are bordered by a narrow, flat thickened area suggestive of M. bainbridgensis but found also by the writer in specimens of Megistocrinus depressus as a char- acter developing with maturity (1923, p. 231, pi. 33).

Horizon and locality. ^The holotype, and the other two speci- mens as well were collected from the crinoid bed at the upper falls of the Redknife River (locality 7288).

Remarks. The specific name is given in honor of G. S. Hume, one of the collectors in this area. The shape of the calyx togeth- er with the small column facet, the ornamentation and character- istic tegmen distinguish this species from all the others.


Synaptocrinus (?) rotundatus n. sp. Plate 1, fig. 9

There is only a single specimen of this species which has been referred with a query to the genus Synaptocrinus. The infra-

21 Mackenzie Ckinoids: Goldking 13

basals are entirely within the ring of the basals. One of the basals, assumed to be the posterior, is elongate ; but it is not strikingly larger than the otl>ers and is overlapped by the radials. There is no radianal in the position of the inferradial as in Icthyo- crinus which this calyx otherwise resembles closely {see Springer, 1920, p. 264). One interradius shows an interbrachial plate above the tirst secundibrachs, two interradii do not show any and two are so poorly preserved and fractured as to show nothing of value. Springer's genus was based upon one species, Synapto- crinus nuntius. In discussing his genus Springer (ref. cit., p. 301) writes, "But if as in the case of Wachsmiithicrimis inter- brachials should be found in some specimens, the genus would stand upon its other characters." The arms are dichotomous, joined or closely appressed. The species in question does not exactly lit into either the genus Ichthyocrinus or the genus Synaptocrinus; but it more nearly fulfills the requirements of the latter and the genus may prove to be variable in the matter of interbrachials and the size of the posterior basal.

The single crown representing this species is poorly preserved, with the left posterior ray in the best condition. The calyx is small, rounded, expanding distally, with a width of 12 mm. at the primaxils above which it expands to its greatest width at the second bifurcation of 14. i mm. The total height preserved is 15,2 mm., and the indications are that the arms were incurved at this height. The base outside the column is 3.4 mm. A raised ridge, almost a tubercle, marks the sutures between the primi- brachs of adjoining rays, prominent on the first primibrachs and flattening out at the top of the primaxil. A depression marks each interradius from the first primibrach to the secundaxil giving a raised appearance to the brachial series at this level. A similar depression separates the two half rays at the level of the secund- axils and above. The plates of tlie dorsal cup up to the top of the primaxils are fairly flat. Above this the plates of the brachial series are rounded.

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The basals are small but pruportionall}- larger than in .V. iiiin- tiits. The posterior basal is noticeably larger than the other basals, but like them does not extend to the full height of the radials. It also terminates in an acute angle, leaving no surface for attach- ment of anal plates. The radials are considerably wider above than below, and the left posterior one is somewhat larger than the others. There are two primibrachs, much wider than high. All brachial plates are much wider than long. There are three sec- undibrachs, followed in one ray b_\' at least ten tertibraclis wit'iout another division. The brachials seem to be joined at least as far as the fourth tertibrach. There is a rapid increase in width from the radials to the primibrachs which have the same width as the combined two secundibrachs immediatel}- above. x'Vll the sec- undibrachs have about the same width and the arms narrow gradually above and have rounded backs. The interbrachial in the left posteroTateral interradius is long and narrow, resting upon the shoulders of the first secundibrachs and extending up to the second tertibrachs where the brachials of adjoining ra\'S close above it with no indication of higher interbrachials.

The plates of the dorsal cup apparently have been smoothed in cleaning for there is indication from patches here and there that the surface of the plates originally was rugose. The brachials definitely have a rugose surface, giving almost a pitted appearance in patches.

Horizon and locality. 'Crinoid bed near base of coral zone (station 1297), Jean Marie River.

Remarks. The species is named from its decidedly rounded oval shape, particularly in the distal part of the crown. This species is readily distinguished from 5". mmtius, among other characters, by the presence in the latter of nodes on the radials, primibrachs and all axillaries beyond and strongly elevated rays, angular in the middle ; and by its own proportionally smaller posterior basal and the presence of at least an occasional inter- brachial.


23 Mackenzie Crinoids: Goldrixg 15


Decadocrinus spinobrachiatus n. sp. Plate 2, figs. 1, 2

Among" the inadunate forms is one whicli Ijears a resemblance, particular]}- in the character of the arms, to Decadocrinus mitlti- nodosus var. scrratobrachiafus Goldring from the Hamilton (Mos- cow shale) beds of western New York (1923, p. 431, pi. 56, fig. i). This species is based upon a crown in a fair state of preser- vation. A second specimen partially and poorl\- preserved is tentatively referred to it.

The crown is preserved to a height of 43.6 mm., but the distal portion of the arms is missing. The dorsal cup is low and flares rapidly. It has a height of 4.5 mm., a width at the top of the radials of 9.6 mm. and a width at the ,column facet of 2.2 mm. The infrabasals are very small, almost hidden b}' the basals which seem to be somewhat thickened in the lower portion. The basals are comparative] \' small, an average one having a height and width of 2.4 mm. The radials occupy the larger portion of the dor- sal cup with a height of 3 mm., a greatest width at the shoulders in a t\pical plate (anterior) of 4.6 mm. and a width at the radial facet of 4 mm. The radianal is pentagonal, smaller than the basals and the anal .r which is of about the size of the basals and projects abo\e the radials. The first tube plate is not completely preserved but appears to be as large as the anal x and borders upon the radial and first primibrach in the right posterior radius, as well as the radianal and anal. Nothing more of the anal tube is preserved. The dorsal cup is unornamented except bv deep pitting at the corners of the plates which gives the efifect on the basals of short ridges crossing the suture lines to the radials above and the infrabasals below.

There are two primibrachs ; the first quadrangular and about twice as wide as high, the primaxil pentagonal and slightl}' wider than high. With the exception of the one in the anterior ray, each first primiljrach bears a spinose tubercle at the center of the

16 Bulletin 81 24

upper margin. In addition there are more or less conspicuous, small spinose tubercles at each of the four corners. Each prim- axil bears a short, sharp spine just below the point of bifurcation and in addition may have the small spinose projections at the four corners as do the first primibrachs. The brachials are wedge- shaped, not conspicuously so, but enough to give a zig-zag effect to the arms. Each brachial is provided with a short, sharp spine, the spines pointing alternately to one side and then to the other, giving a very pronounced serrated or saw-toothed appearance to the arms. In addition there may be spinose projections at the corners. Each brachial bears a pinnule on the higher side be- neath the spinose projection, thus giving an alternate arrange- ment, as is the case with the spines. The pinnules are long and slender, composed of long ossicles ; and they appear to be rounded on the dorsal side. The column appears to have been subpenta- gonal.

Horizon and locality. From the bed marked q, at the third chute, Redknife River (locality 7298).

Remarks. This species derives its name from the spiny char- acter of the arms and may readily be distinguished from the Hamilton form to which it bears a resemblance. The spines ornamenting the brachials are short, sharp and rounded while in D. multinodiis var. serratohrachiatus they are angular and tooth-like. The latter lacks the spinose projections at the angles of the brachials. D. spinohrachiahis has no nodes on the basals and apparently no surface ornamentation of the plates of the cups and arms.

'The second specimen, tentatively referred to this species, was collected from the bed marked /, of the gorge section, Bouvier River. The specimen shows a crushed dorsal cup and portions of three arms, two preserved above the primaxils. The speci- men, so far as preserved, agrees with D. spinobrachiofus in all characters except the presence of three primibrachs in the two rays preserved. The writer carefully examined the type for

25 Mackenzie Crinoids: Goldring 17

anchylosis of a possible second primibrach with the primaxil, but there was no indication of this though the anterior ray does show anchylosis of the first primibrach and the primaxil. The second specimen is a larger perhaps older specimen, so, since there is no knowledge of the character of the other ra}S or variability within the species, the writer feels this specimen should for the present be placed with D. spinobrachiatus.


Prininocrinus is a dicyclic inadunate crinoid belonging to the subfamily Proteriocrininge of the family Proteriocrinidae. The genotype is Prininocrinus robustiis, new species. The dorsal cup of the only species is bowl-shaped. The radial facet occupies the full wadth of the radial ; and the arms are unbranched above the first axillary, composed of cjuadrangular brachials bearing pinnules alternately on each side. The ventral sac is unknown and the .column appears to have been round. The radianal is in line with the radials, the anal x in large part above the radials and resting upon the radianal and left posterior radial.

Figure 1. Analysis of dorsal cup of Prininocrinus robustus, genotype. IB, infrabasal; B, basal; E, radial; BA, radianal; x, anal; rt, right tube plate.

Of the other genera belonging to this family Prininocrinus re- sembles Decadocriniis W. and Sp. (Devonian to Carboniferous) in the character of the arms ; but bears most resemblance in the character of the dorsal cup to two Carboniferous forms, Zeacrinus Hall and Cromyocrinus Trautsch (see Springer, 1913, pp. 223, 224; Bather, 1900, pp. 180, 181). Both of the last two genera

18 Bulletin 81 26

have the wide radial facets and in both the anal x is high in the cup, extending above the radials. In Cromyocrinus the anal x rests upon a short face of the posterior basal as well as upon the radianal and left posterior radial. This genus has arms un- branched above the first auxiliary. In Zeacrinus, with branching arms, the anal x rests only on the radianal and left posterior radial, but with a difi:erent arrangement for the plates.

The name is derived from the Greek prininos sturdy ; krinon, lily.

Prininocrinus robustus n. sp. Plate 2, figs. 3, 4

Priiiiiwcrimis robustus is represented by five specimens from the Redknife River section. The figures and description are based largely upon one specimen, the holotype, because